What are the generic data platform business models?

Over the last 3 months, there has been a common set of questions about the design of the underlying business model for a data platform. If you have a data set that you think is valuable, how should you “sell” it?

  1. Data as a product.
    This is the simplest model and in essence you sell all or part of that data for a defined value. This is a one off payment as for a product and the purchaser has unrestricted use of that data. This is typically useful for static data e..g clinical trials, survey results, insights from analytics.
  2. Subscription model
    The purchaser is able to access defined portions of the data, through an API. Restrictions are often applied on quality of data, frequency of access, usage etc.
  3. Analysis or Model as a Service
    Here the data provider will create a model where the purchaser is able to add their own data to create unique insights. As an example, retail sales data gathers for areas of a city can be provided as a model to allow real estate companies assess the value of developing a shopping mall at a particular location.
  4. Insight as a Service
    Consultants or experts are made available by the data platform provider to provide insights or answers to specific questions required by the purchaser. This is essentially a consulting service, where the consultants are data scientists that have access to unique data stores and analysis tools. Benchmarking services are a good example here.

These seem to be the four generic models I have come across so far. What other models have you come across?